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2010年8月17日,星期二

Reading fluency 和 阅读 LD/dyslexia: Guest post 通过 John DeMann

以下是一个 来宾博客文章 (以前称为 虚拟学者 在这个博客上)  通过 约翰·J·德曼, NCSP,学校心理学家, 北阿勒格尼学区 约翰利用我向博客读者提供的长期服务,获得了我在博客中提及的任何文章的PDF副本。 研究简报 (要么 字节) 或最近的“智商角最近感兴趣的文学”帖子。 我知道许多从业者都无法访问期刊……因此,如果有人自愿撰写简短的书面文章,我愿意将文章的PDF副本发送给他们,以换取该文章。

This feature benefits all readers as the post is "added value 和 commentary" which then allows me to provide a link to the full article (via the "fair use doctrine"---esp. for 教育al purposes) for all to read.  So it is a win-win 和 "help your colleagues" type of exchange program.

John's post is very well written 和 provides a nice overview of the article along with some stimulating ideas 和 thoughts.  Thanks John.  His post is reproduced below "as is" (save any minor copy edits 和 or the adding or URL links 通过 the blogmaster). 如果您正在考虑发表嘉宾帖子,请不要认为您的帖子必须与John一样长。  Individual differences in guest posting is valued 和 记录ognized.

最近,对 阅读 fluency 在专业文献和应用实践中均已出现。口语阅读流畅度通常是评估干预(RTI)模型反应的结果变量,并且通常在阅读连接的文本时通过儿童的语速和准确性(正确/分钟的单词数)来衡量。由于针对核心语音意识缺陷的干预措施无处不在,注意力已经转移到其他影响认知的变量 reading development beyond single-word 阅读 和 decoding difficulties. Although traditional assessment and definitions of 诵读困难 焦点 on single-word 阅读 和 decoding deficits, difficulty with 阅读 fluency has been increasingly 记录ognized as an important characteristic of dyslexics. For example, the 记录ent reauthorization of the 《残疾人教育改进法》(IDEA,2004年) now 记录ognizes 阅读 fluency as one of the eight areas of specific 学习 disability. 更多 记录ent conceptualizations of the term 诵读困难 also include references to fluency as an area of difficulty experiences 通过 individuals with 诵读困难. Further, the authors of the 即将修订 Diagnostic 和 Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition) 正在提出诵读困难的修订定义,其中包括准确性或 fluency. This increased 注意 to fluency as an important aspect of 阅读 may be the result of fluency being 记录ognized as an important contributor to the overall goal of 阅读 - comprehension. Reading fluency is essential for a child's academic success, as dysfluent 阅读 is likely to significantly interfere with 阅读 comprehension 和 thereby hamper the 学习 of content area knowledge. Although 介入 research has established 阅读 fluency's importance in developing overall 阅读 skills, more work is needed to explore 诵读困难 characterized primarily 通过 a lack of fluency 和 gain consensus regarding disability subtypes 和 cognitive components of fluency.

Meisinger等人的文章Reading Fluency: implications for the 评定 of 孩子们 with 阅读 disabilities (阅读障碍年鉴,2010,60,1-17)提出了将流利度作为阅读能力的总体指标的重要性的论点,并强调了在进行综合评估时必须包括流利度的标准化措施的重要性。在当前形成性评估和对学校心理学格局占主导地位的响应模型时代,这些作者认为,鉴于许多评估工具的不足,流利性的可靠和有效度量可能是评估中被忽视的方面。他们认为,许多衡量阅读技巧的常见评估工具包括单词阅读,解码和理解的手段,但很少包括阅读流畅度的手段。此外,他们指出了各种测试如何定义阅读流畅性的不一致之处。例如,来自 伍德考克-约翰逊成就测验-第三版(WJ-III 交流电H) measures an individual's ability to quickly read simple statements 和 decide whether they are accurate (i.e. includes comprehension), whereas other measures characterize fluency as an individual's ability quickly 和 accurately read larger blocks of text (e.g. GORT-4)。 Regardless of how fluency is measured, Meisinger et al. caution that the omission of fluency in the 评定 of an individual's 阅读 skills may have important implications for diagnostic decision making. They reference 记录ent research that suggests word 阅读 和 阅读 fluency are distinct skills that each make unique contributions to an individuals 阅读 comprehension. Therefore, evaluations that do not include measures of 阅读 fluency may lead to erroneous or misleading conclusions regarding an individual's 阅读 abilities.

As a result of this significant problem, Meisinger et al. chose to examine the diagnostic utility of 阅读 fluency to identify 孩子们 with 阅读 disabilities 通过 (a) determining whether there are 孩子们 who have typically developing word identification 和 decoding skills but show specific deficits in 阅读 fluency; (b) examine which cognitive features differentiate 孩子们 with specific 阅读 fluency deficits from struggling 和 normal readers, 和 (c) investigating whether the omission of 阅读 fluency in the 评定 of 孩子们 would results in the under-identification of 孩子们 with 阅读 disabilities. The results of their study suggest:

* 阅读 fluency measures are more sensitive in detecting 阅读 problems than word 阅读 measures
* it is essential to evaluate 阅读 fluency when assessing 孩子们 referred for 阅读 difficulties; failure to do so may result in the under-identification of 孩子们 with 阅读 disabilities
* results support the identification of a subgroup of 孩子们 who exhibit specific deficits in 阅读 fluency without concordant deficits in single word 阅读 in isolation or in decoding unknown words ("double-deficit" 阅读 disability subtypes
* RAN is an 在以下方面起重要作用的基础过程 determining the rate 在 which 孩子们 read connected text
* compared to 孩子们 with normal 阅读 skills, 孩子们 with deficits in 阅读 fluency were characterized 通过 deficits in rapid naming speed but not in 语音处理

These results, as the authors suggest, have important implications for practitioners, suggesting that psycho-educational 评定 that does not include measures of 阅读 fluency is 有一定风险 of under-identifying 孩子们 who would otherwise be classified as 阅读-disabled. These results also support the need for increased 焦点 on 介入 that leads to improved 阅读 skills beyond the single-word level.

回顾本文,  a few criticisms/caveats to consider: the authors indicate that a comprehensive, standardized test that measures word 阅读, decoding, fluency, 和 comprehension does not exist, making a 交叉电池 approach necessary to measure all variables in this study. Therefore, as the authors suggest, differences in test characteristics could account for the observed differences in performance on these measures. Although the WJ-III measures all aspects of 阅读 used in their study, they chose to use a measure of fluency that aligns with more current 定义 (e.g. National Reading Panel). It might be interesting to see how these tests choose to conceptualize fluency in future test revisions. The new 二战I (直到该研究提交审查后才发布)定义了流利度,类似于GORT-4,并且受益于全面,共同规范的电池。使用WIAT-III规范样本进行的这项研究的复制可以减轻该研究中报告的抽样和测试误差差异,并确定这些结果是否可以推广到更大的规范性样本中-这项研究中使用的样本选自白色,先前被诊断患有阅读障碍或怀疑有阅读问题的儿童的临床参考样本。最后,作者建议应通过探索可能有助于阅读流利度表现的其他潜在重要变量来复制和扩展其结果。例如,提供工作记忆作为阅读流畅度的另一个潜在重要的认知变量,该变量可以包含在该模型中,以预测阅读流畅度的差异。 尽管有证据表明RAN是 在以下方面起重要作用的基础过程 在识别阅读困难时,我们对为什么有阅读障碍的儿童表现出这些缺陷的理解仍然有限。 From a CHC观点, RAN tasks share both cognitive speediness (Gs) 和 naming/retrieval (Glr) performance aspects; another question that remains as a result of this study is whether RAN deficits represent a more general slow speed of processing (Gs), or whether RAN deficits are related to slowness specific to letters/numbers that hampers the development of fluent 阅读.

It is apparent that 阅读 fluency represents a largely under-studied area of 阅读 research that may be a key area of 评定 for 孩子们 who experience 阅读 problems. Most importantly, 评定 practices that include standardized fluency measures may help differentiate 介入 for students who experience difficulty developing fluency beyond word-identification skills.


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