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2010年8月18日,星期三

Hale等人(2010)专家共识特定学习障碍(SLD)LDQ文章

布拉德·黑尔的 request (he has been spending lots of time emailing people copies of this paper 和 he needs a break), the Hale et al. (2010) the final version of the 专家共识白皮书"Critical issues in response-to-intervention, comprehensive evaluation, 和 specific 学习障碍 identification 和 介入" 出版于 学习障碍季刊 现在可以被访问 点击这里。



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2010年8月17日,星期二

Reading fluency 和 读 LD /dyslexia: Guest post 通过 John DeMann

以下是一个 来宾博客文章 (以前称为 虚拟学者 在这个博客上)  通过 约翰·J·德曼, NCSP,学校心理学家, 北阿勒格尼学区 约翰利用我向博客读者提供的长期服务,获得了我在博客中提及的任何文章的PDF副本。 研究简报 (要么 字节) 或最近的“智商角最近感兴趣的文学”帖子。 我知道许多从业者都无法访问期刊……因此,如果有人自愿撰写简短的书面文章,我愿意将文章的PDF副本发送给他们,以换取该文章。

This feature benefits all readers as the post is "added value 和 commentary" which then allows me to provide a link to the full article (via the "fair use doctrine"---esp. for 教育al purposes) for all to read.  So it is a win-win 和 "help your colleagues" type of exchange program.

John's post is very well written 和 provides a nice overview of the article along with some stimulating ideas 和 thoughts.  Thanks John.  His post is reproduced below "as is" (save any minor copy edits 和 or the adding or 网址 links 通过 the blogmaster).  If you are considering a guest post, 不要't think your post has to be as long as John's.  Individual differences in guest posting is valued 和 记录 ognized.

最近,对 读 fluency 在专业文献和应用实践中均已出现。口语阅读流畅度通常是评估干预(RTI)模型反应的结果变量,并且通常在阅读连接的文本时通过儿童的语速和准确性(正确/分钟的单词数)来衡量。由于针对核心语音意识缺陷的干预措施无处不在,注意力已经转移到其他影响3d捕鱼达人的变量 reading development beyond single-word 读 和 decoding difficulties. Although traditional assessment and definitions of 诵读困难 焦点 上 single-word 读 和 decoding deficits, difficulty with 读 fluency has been increasingly 记录 ognized as an important characteristic of dyslexics. For example, the 记录 ent reauthorization of the 《残疾人教育改进法》(IDEA,2004年) now 记录 ognizes 读 fluency as 上 e of the eight areas of specific 学习 失能. 更多 记录 ent conceptualizations of the term 诵读困难 also include references to fluency as an area of difficulty experiences 通过 individuals with 诵读困难. Further, the authors of the 即将修订 Diagnostic 和 Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition) 正在提出诵读困难的修订定义,其中包括准确性或 fluency. This increased 注意 to fluency as an important aspect of 读 may be the result of fluency being 记录 ognized as an important contributor to the overall goal of 读 - comprehension. Reading fluency is essential for a child's academic success, as dysfluent 读 is likely to significantly interfere with 读 comprehension 和 thereby hamper the 学习 of content area knowledge. Although 介入 research has established 读 fluency's importance in developing overall 读 skills, more work is needed to explore 诵读困难 characterized primarily 通过 a lack of fluency 和 gain consensus regarding 失能 subtypes 和 3d捕鱼达人的 components of fluency.

Meisinger等人的文章Reading Fluency: implications for the 评定 of 孩子们 with 读 disabilities (阅读障碍年鉴,2010,60,1-17)提出了将流利度作为阅读能力的总体指标的重要性的论点,并强调了在进行综合评估时必须包括流利度的标准化措施的重要性。在当今形成性评估和对学校心理格局占主导地位的响应模型时代,这些作者认为,鉴于许多评估工具的不足,流利性的可靠和有效措施可能是评估中被忽视的方面。他们认为,许多衡量阅读技巧的常见评估工具包括单词阅读,解码和理解的手段,但很少包括阅读流畅度的手段。此外,他们指出了各种测试如何定义阅读流畅性的不一致之处。例如,来自 伍德考克-约翰逊成就测验-第三版(WJ-III 交流电 H) measures an individual's ability to quickly read simple statements 和 decide whether they are accurate (i.e. includes comprehension), whereas other measures characterize fluency as an individual's ability quickly 和 accurately read larger blocks of text (e.g. GORT-4)。 Regardless of how fluency is measured, Meisinger et al. caution that the omission of fluency in the 评定 of an individual's 读 skills may have important implications for diagnostic decision making. They reference 记录 ent research that suggests word 读 和 读 fluency are distinct skills that each make unique contributions to an individuals 读 comprehension. Therefore, evaluations that do not include measures of 读 fluency may lead to erroneous or misleading conclusions regarding an individual's 读 abilities.

As a result of this significant problem, Meisinger et al. chose to examine the diagnostic utility of 读 fluency to identify 孩子们 with 读 disabilities 通过 (a) determining whether there are 孩子们 who have typically developing word identification 和 decoding skills but show specific deficits in 读 fluency; (b) examine which 3d捕鱼达人的 features differentiate 孩子们 with specific 读 fluency deficits from struggling 和 normal readers, 和 (c) investigating whether the omission of 读 fluency in the 评定 of 孩子们 would results in the under-identification of 孩子们 with 读 disabilities. The results of their study suggest:

* 读 fluency measures are more sensitive in detecting 读 problems than word 读 measures
* it is essential to evaluate 读 fluency when assessing 孩子们 referred for 读 difficulties; failure to do so may result in the under-identification of 孩子们 with 读 disabilities
* results support the identification of a subgroup of 孩子们 who exhibit specific deficits in 读 fluency without concordant deficits in single word 读 in isolation or in decoding unknown words ("double-deficit" 读 失能 subtypes
* RAN is an 在以下方面起重要作用的基础过程 determining the rate 在 which 孩子们 read connected text
* compared to 孩子们 with normal 读 skills, 孩子们 with deficits in 读 fluency were characterized 通过 deficits in rapid naming speed but not in 语音处理

These results, as the authors suggest, have important implications for practitioners, suggesting that psycho-educational 评定 that does not include measures of 读 fluency is 有一定风险 of under-identifying 孩子们 who would otherwise be classified as 读-disabled. These results also support the need for increased 焦点 上 介入 that leads to improved 读 skills beyond the single-word level.

回顾本文, a few criticisms/caveats to consider: the authors indicate that a comprehensive, standardized test that measures word 读, decoding, fluency, 和 comprehension does not exist, making a 交叉电池 approach necessary to measure all variables in this study. Therefore, as the authors suggest, differences in test characteristics could account for the observed differences in performance 上 these measures. Although the WJ -III measures all aspects of 读 used in their study, they chose to use a measure of fluency that aligns with more current 定义 (e.g. 国家阅读窗格l). It might be interesting to see how these tests choose to conceptualize fluency in future test revisions. The new 二战I (直到该研究提交审查后才发布)定义了流利度,类似于GORT-4,并且受益于全面,共同规范的电池。使用WIAT-III规范样本进行的这项研究的复制可以减轻该研究中报告的抽样和测试误差差异,并确定这些结果是否可以推广到更大的规范性样本中-这项研究中使用的样本选自白色,先前被诊断患有阅读障碍或怀疑有阅读问题的儿童的临床参考样本。最后,作者建议应通过探索可能有助于阅读流利度表现的其他潜在重要变量来复制和扩展其结果。例如,提供工作记忆作为阅读流畅度的另一个潜在重要的3d捕鱼达人变量,该变量可以包含在该模型中,以预测阅读流畅度的差异。 尽管有证据表明RAN是 在以下方面起重要作用的基础过程  在识别阅读困难时,我们对为什么有阅读障碍的儿童表现出这些缺陷的理解仍然有限。 From a CHC 观点, RAN tasks share both 3d捕鱼达人的 speediness (Gs) 和 naming/retrieval (Glr) performance aspects; another question that remains as a result of this study is whether RAN deficits represent a more general slow speed of processing (Gs), or whether RAN deficits are related to slowness specific to letters/numbers that hampers the development of fluent 读.

It is apparent that 读 fluency represents a largely under-studied area of 读 research that may be a key area of 评定 for 孩子们 who experience 读 problems. Most importantly, 评定 practices that include standardized fluency measures may help differentiate 介入 for students who experience difficulty developing fluency beyond word-identification skills.


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2010年7月16日,星期五

新的SLD识别模型:韦恩县将CHC理论用于3d捕鱼达人成分

Many school districts are working to implement the new 理念 law 和 regulations regarding SLD identification in the context of a Tier-based 应对干预 (RTI)模型。  Today I learned of 上 school system (Wayne County) that uses, for the 3d捕鱼达人的 strenghts 和 weaknesses component, the 卡特尔·洪·卡罗尔(CHC)模型。 有关其系统的信息可以在以下位置找到 他们的网页。 

我想听听其他组织了 3d捕鱼达人的 pattern of strengths 和 weaknesses SLD component 围绕CHC模型。  Contact me 在 [email protected] if you would have something to share 和 that I could share with 智商角 读者。




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2009年5月15日,星期五

CHC 智力理论的承诺

Combine the past 20 years of CHC -driven 情报 测试开发 和 research activities (click 这里 这里 ) with the 上 going refinement 和 extension of CHC 理论 (麦格鲁(McGrew),2005年; 2009年) 和 上 e concludes that these are exciting times in the field of 智力测试. But is this excitement warranted in 学校心理学? Has the drawing of a reasonably circumscribed “holy grail”3d捕鱼达人能力的分类将我们带到了学校中应许的智力测验之地—using the results of 3d捕鱼达人的 评定s to better the 教育 of 孩子们 with special needs? Or, have we simply become more sophisticated in the range of measures 和 tools used to “下沉轴在更多临界点” in the mind (see 卢宾西,2000年) which, although important for understanding 和 studying human 个体差异, fails to improve 诊断, 分类, 和 指令 in 教育?
这是一个有趣的巧合 McDermott, Fantuzzo, 和 l utting’s (1990) now infamous 和 catchy admonition to psychologists who administer 情报 tests to “只是说不对分析进行亚测”发生在大约20年前—the time when contemporary CHC 情报 理论 和 评定 was emerging. By 1990, McDermott 和 colleagues had convincingly demonstrated, largely via core profile analysis of the then current 韦克斯勒 trilogy of batteries (WPPSI, 威斯康星州 -R, WAIS -R) that ipsative strength 和 weakness 解释 of subtest profiles was not psychometrically sound. In essence, “超过g(完整IQ)—don’t bother.”
I believe that optimism is appropriate regarding the 教育al relevance of CHC - driven 测试开发 和 research. Surprisingly, cautious optimism has been voiced 通过 prominent 学校心理学 critics of 智力测试. In a 评论 of the WJ -R , 伊塞尔迪克(1990) 将WJ-R描述为“在应用智力测量中的一个重要里程碑”(第274页)。更重要的是,Ysseldyke表示他“excited about a number of possibilities for use of the WJ -R in empirical investigations of important issues in 心理学, 教育, 和 , specifically, in 特殊教育…现在,我们也许能够调查学生对各种因素的表现知识在多大程度上可以预测学校的相对成功。也就是说,我们现在可以开始处理相关性.” (p. 273). 雷什利(1997),以回应第一个基于CHC的3d捕鱼达人成就因果建模研究报告(McGrew, 弗拉纳根, Keith & Vanderwood, 1997) which demonstrated that some specific CHC abilities are important in understanding 读 和 数学 成就 above 和 beyond the effect of 一般情报 (g)得出结论“关于是否需要重新考虑特定能力与一般能力结论的争论颇有说服力。显然,某些特定能力似乎具有改善个别诊断的潜力。但是请注意,已经证明了它的潜力”(Reschly,1997,p.238)。
Clearly the potential 和 promise of improved 智力测试, vis-à-vis CHC organized test batteries, has been 记录 ognized since 1989. But has this promise been realized during the past 20 years? Has our 测量 of CHC abilities improved? Has CHC -based 3d捕鱼达人的 评定 provided a better understanding of the relations between specific 3d捕鱼达人能力 和 school 成就? Has it improved identification 和 分类? 更多 importantly, in the current 教育al climate, where does CHC - grounded 智力测试 fit within the context of the emerging 干预响应(RTI)范例?
试图回答这些问题的手稿将提交出版(McGrew&Wendling,2009年)以及对 CHC COG-ACH关系研究综合项目t可在 智商角 (警告 - current posted material is now outdated 和 does not reflect the final conclusions of the McGrew & Wendling (2009) 评论. This material is in the process of being revised 和 will be posted soon. Stay tuned to 智商角 Blog or announcements via the 国家航空航天局 和 CHC 列表服务器s.

点击这里 对于本系列的其他帖子。

2009年2月18日,星期三

CHC COG-ACH research synthesis project: 1-18-09 update 和 revision


我刚刚发布了在线PPT的另一个更新 幻灯片分享 展示了我对a的结果的当前解释 《 CHC 3d捕鱼达人成就关系研究综述》 我一直在从事的项目。   The newest feature is the inclusion of a set of "cheat-sheet" summary slides to be used 通过 评定 professionals to engage in more selective referral-focused 3d捕鱼达人的 评定s. 这些从实践到实践的摘要幻灯片(点击这里 if you want to see an example) are intended to take the research synthesis results (the first 100 slides....yes...the show has 130 in total 和 is not yet finished) 和 make the results practical.

本演示文稿介绍了 “ CHC COG-ACH与研究综合相关” project described 和 hosted 在 智商的角落 行动计划 . The viewer should first read the background materials regarding this project 在 these sites (how to access is also included in first slide). The results summarized in this 上 -line show are part of a manuscript that is in preparation with Barb Wendling 和 will also serve as the foundation for a 2009年NASP会议在波士顿举行的迷你技能研讨会.

重访 智商的角落 跟上更新。


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2009年2月6日,星期五

LD ,RTI,3d捕鱼达人测试:AGORA课程

Interested in expert opinions 上 the interaction of LD identification, RTI 和 the role of 3d捕鱼达人的 测试? Check out the 阿古拉 多媒体课程。我曾是其中一名会谈负责人,但没有获得任何版税[我得到了一笔小小的酬金]。可以通过以下方式找到传单的副本: 点击这里. 说明如下


  • 随附的传单介绍了有关SLD识别的多媒体课程,其中包括RTI和综合评估的内容,并根据当前研究总结了七个最佳实践原则。它有6个小时的时长,可以分两个,三个小时,1/2天或一个六个小时的全天时段交付。它打算由各地区购买,并由该地区的某人(自愿的任何人提供,因为没有必要的技能或知识作为主持人)。完成本课程后,可以获得继续教育学分。请注意,由于预算大量削减,某些地区负担不起派学校人员参加会议的费用,许多地区负担不起请发言人参加的费用。这门课程非常具有成本效益,可以培训内部的许多专业人员,而费用仅为派他们参加会议或邀请演讲者的一小部分。最后,该专业发展计划将增强评估或特殊学习障碍(SLD)的任何课程,尤其是因为学生们可以接触到以下方面的研究和观点: 四面八方的领导人 SLD 标识争议。
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2008年4月29日,星期二

第三届全国学校心理学神经心理学会议-2008年7月9日至12日

注册 第三届全国学校神经心理学会议 (July 9-12; GR apevine, 德州) is now open. It looks like a very good 会议 with 简报/workshops 上 the 尿布 -II, CHC 交叉电池 评定, the 中国科学院 , 工作记忆 评定, the D-KEFS, culturally 和 linguistically oriented 评定, LD /RTI, etc.

主题演讲地址为 理查德·伍德考克 (The 演化 of the 评定 of 3d捕鱼达人的 functions )。

无耻的插头。我要去一个受邀地址(紧随伍德科克博士的地址) 使用WJ III3d捕鱼达人子测验预测学业成就的进展。实际上,此演示文稿将是 CHC 重点,从WJ III衍生的研究作为阐明CHC与成就关系的主要工具。这与我在NASP08研讨会上半年揭幕的内容相似 卡特尔·洪·卡罗尔(CHC)3d捕鱼达人能力荟萃分析 项目。

荣誉 丹·米勒博士 组织一次激动人心的会议。

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2008年3月31日,星期一

Cognitive 评定 和 t : Excellent overview 通过 布莱德·黑尔

荣誉 布莱德·黑尔 对于他写得很好的解释 "应对干预: Guidelines for Parents 和 Practitioners" 在 Wrightslaw。这篇文章很好地概述了 t (应对干预) 和 the use of 3d捕鱼达人的/neuropsychological 评定 during the Tier III component of t 楷模.

Readers who want to consult the article Brad references (Hale et al., 2006), which is the primary foundation for his thoughts 上 the use of 3d捕鱼达人的/neuropsychological 评定 in an t framework, can find a copy (along with guest blog comments 通过 约翰·加鲁托) 通过 点击这里.


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2008年3月6日,星期四

Cognitive 评定 和 RTI : Shinn response, correction, plus...

我之前的FYI帖子关于 Kearns 和 Fuch's LD A presentation 导致了关于 国家航空航天局 列表服务器。最详细的回复来自 马克·辛恩博士 (请参阅他的马克杯向左射)。下面是Mark的listserv注释“按原样”(博客管理员对格式进行了一些细微更改)。

马克也很客气,能为我提供完整的 利益冲突披露e声明,可以在这篇文章的底部找到。最后,我认为我需要纠正。在NASP清单上的电子邮件回复中,我建议Fuch是 斯坦·德诺博士, who is widely considered as the father of 煤层气 . Doug was a student 在 the U of M prior to my arrival, so I am not aware of the complete 历史. But, I now believe that Doug was not involved with Dr. Deno during the development of 煤层气 . I believe Doug's doctoral mentor was the late 和 great 布鲁斯·巴洛. However, Doug has been involved in researching various aspects of 煤层气 as it relates to LD identification. Enough said....I 不要't have time to run down the lineage of all fellow U of M scholars.

另外,我想发表以下声明:Shinn博士在其COI声明中提到的一种产品...即...AimsWeb。 在所有用于持续监控的工具中,我印象最深刻的是 AimsWeb product...just my two cents. Finally, I'm 不要e commenting 上 this thread. Folks who want to track further developments should 在 tend to the 国家航空航天局 列表服务器.

马克·希恩(Mark Shinn)对成员发表的激动之情做出了回应:&Fuchs LD A演示。
  • 在激动不已之前,我鼓励仔细阅读一下演示文稿。
  • This is not about the role/importance of 3d捕鱼达人的 评定 in LD identification. In particular, this is not a presentation about ATI公司 s.
  • On slide 60, regarding the "potential concerns" note: "Many of the studies did not identify 3d捕鱼达人的 deficits 在 all" "When they did, they did not always use 3d捕鱼达人的 评定"
  • 这是许多其他弱点之一。
  • Slide 62 states "The Use of Cognitive Assessment Has Potential (Their Emphasis) Benefit--" 可能 " is not the same as "Does" 和 this 评论 doesn't provide much of a compelling argument as to how or why I could go 上 和 上 , but it would not be a good use of time. Note, however, among a number of concerns...
  • The authors seem to confuse the p value with impact...the lower the p, the greater the effect (slides 34, 42. Minnesota statisticians would be chastising beyond belief. Effect sizes were reported 上 ly 上 Slide 55. Only 10 of the 36 studies were judged to be of high quality while 14 were judged to be of low quality--not excluded, but still interpreted anyway. Subjects were unspecified, but IF the topic was the role of 3d捕鱼达人的 评定 in SLD , then 上 e would presume that the studies would have SLD students as subjects. A few clearer are not targeted 上 SLD . For example, 上 slide 48, the students are 14 students with low WMRT scores. Slide 41 lists subjects as 多动症 . Hmmmm.
  • Dependent measures...Visuo-空间工作记忆 circles, Span Boards, Raven's Head movements (slide 34). Perhaps most importantly, the presentation reports results of 3d捕鱼达人的 "干预措施," not 3d捕鱼达人的 评定s. Let's see Slide 31 Do 3d捕鱼达人的 干预措施 have a positive effect 上 3d捕鱼达人的 outcomes?
  • Slide 34 Findings: Students in 介入 had greater Slide 35 Performance 上 3d捕鱼达人的 tasks can be improved with a 工作记忆 介入 improvement in Slide 36 Cognitive 干预措施 have a positive effect 上 3d捕鱼达人的 outcomes Slide 37 Do studies with hybrid 3d捕鱼达人的+academic 干预措施 produce academic gains 和 上 和 上 和 上 ...
  • As a final note, what is the difference between a "3d捕鱼达人的" 介入 和 an "academic 介入?" Seems like an artificial contrivance.
Shinn博士的COI声明:Mark R. Shinn博士与三家公司有商业关系。他是皮尔逊评估(Pearson Assessment)的付费顾问,是AIMSweb的首席科学家,AIMSweb是由Gary 通用电器 rmann和Steven Jennen创建的公司,该公司于2006年被出售给Psychological Corporation。他的职责包括为软件/产品开发和改进以及现场测试做出贡献。他没有在AIMSweb的销售中获得使用费或佣金。他还是McGraw-Hill公司Glencoe Publishing的Jamestown Reading Navigator(JRN)产品顾问。 JRN是针对处于危险中和表现非常低下的青少年的阅读干预措施。他的角色一直是协助JRN使用CBM迷宫作为其阅读进度监控系统的一部分。如果产品实现盈利,他计划获得使用费(1%的四分之一)。他目前还担任Voathger出版的VMath的无偿供款人(无特许权使用费),由Voyager发行,这是针对3-12年级高危学生的数学干预。 HI的职责是协助VMath开发和使用CBM Math Computation作为其数学进度监控系统的一部分。


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2007年8月29日,星期三

LD 和 RTI - 来宾博客文章 通过 吉姆·汉森

以下是一个 来宾博客文章 通过 吉姆·汉森 (俄勒冈州波特兰市波特兰公立学校医学博士,医学博士), 智商角学者虚拟社区 项目。

Jim最近分享了一些材料(关于 CHC 列表服务器) that he 和 his colleagues had developed in response to new regulations regarding the identification of 孩子们 with 特定学习障碍(SLD)。他收到了许多“我愿意”要求提供他提供的材料副本的请求。 智商的角落 invited Jim to share his materials via a guest post 和 to ask Jim to become a regular 客座博客. He agreed!!!!!

以下是他分发的两个文档的链接。一个是pdf文件的形式(点击这里查看)。另一个是 微软幻灯片软件 节目,我已经通过 幻灯片分享 (点击这里查看)。以下是吉姆的评论。他的同事列在PPT节目的标题幻灯片上。

  • 联邦和大多数州的法规已将识别特定学习障碍的标准从智商/成就差异模型更改为:1)对干预(RTI)的反应和/或2)相对于年龄,州的成就或表现的优缺点模式年级标准和智力开发(PSW)。学区正努力解释PSW的含义。一些管理员希望继续使用IQ /成就差异模型,并将其称为PSW。这忽略了关于学习障碍的性质和联邦定义的大量研究证据,后者将SLD定义为一种或多种基本心理过程的弱点。一些地区希望继续“照常营业”的原因可能是地区人员对学习障碍的神经系统不熟悉。如果他们熟悉3d捕鱼达人科学,那么他们可能仍然会因研究人员之间科学术语的多样性,技术的复杂性,与有效性的关系以及在各种学校和学校团队中的易于应用而感到恐惧。所提出的还原论模型基于该领域几位主要研究人员的模型。它旨在使管理员熟悉当前的3d捕鱼达人科学的第一步。它也可以提供一个可接受的研究模型,直到可以用更广泛和技术上更合适的识别方法对人员进行培训为止。欢迎有兴趣的人与Jim Hanson联系[email protected], or the Oregon School Psychologists Association for further questions 和 comments."

2007年4月18日,星期三

Math 筛选 和 prgressing monitoring - Guest post 通过 约翰·加鲁托

以下是来自的来宾帖子 约翰·加鲁托, 学校心理ologist with the Oswego School District 和 member of the 智商角学者虚拟社区. John 评论ed the following article 和 has provided his comments below. [博客独裁者注记-约翰的评论是“按原样”呈现的,博客独裁者仅进行了少量次要编辑

Fuchs,L.S.,Fuchs,D.,Compton,D.L.,Bryant,J.D.,Hamlett,C.L.& Seethaler, P.M. (2007). Mathematics Screening 和 Progress Monitoring 在 First GR ade: Implications for Responsiveness to Intervention. 杰出儿童,73(3),311-330。


抽象
  • 评估了用于评估二年级末数学残疾(MD)的筛选措施的预测效用以及数学进度监控工具的预测效度和判别效度。参加该研究的有225名一年级学生,并在第二年级末完成了数据收集。筛选措施包括数字识别/计数,事实检索,基于课程的度量(CBM)计算以及CBM概念/应用。或编号识别/计数和CBM计算,每周也收集27次评估。在计算和单词问题上,二年级末MD定义为低于1 O百分点。 Logistic回归表明,四变量筛选模型产生了ood,并且在解释MD计算和MD单词问题方面具有相似的拟合度。分类准确性主要是由CBM概念/应用程序和CBM计算驱动的;在这些预测指标中,CBM的概念/应用更好。 煤层气 计算(但不是数字标识/计数)证明了对进度监控的有效性。
约翰·加鲁托讲话(用他自己的话)
  • This article begins with a summary of research that has already been 不要e to date regarding 数学 disabilities. One of the most important conclusions reached through analysis of past studies is that 筛选 outcomes will likely differentiate 数学 computation from 数学 reasoning skills--looking 在 数学 as a universal entity would likely be erroneous.
  • 已有研究的例子包括审查各种筛选器在预测结果测量中的影响。跨研究的筛查者包括(但不限于):数字知识,数字向后跨度,数字遗漏等。结果测量包括各种团体管理的标准化参考测试(例如斯坦福成就测试)或单独进行标准化的基准测试(例如WJ-R)。大多数筛查预测因素对结局指标具有一定程度的可预测性(通常在约0.42至.72之间)。不足为奇的是,数字知识是最高的预测因子,而缺少数字和数字向后跨度似乎也说明了研究之间的某种程度的差异。这些发现与CHC(Cattell-Horn-Carroll)框架相关,该框架主张结晶的智力,流畅的推理和短期记忆都是数学成绩的重要预测指标(请参见Flanagan,Ortiz,Alfonso,& Mascolo, 2006).
  • Fuchs等。在第一年级开始时使用WJ-III来获取他们的主题样本的概况。他们使用了四种CBM技术来预测二年级结束时相关度量的性能(数字ID /计数,事实检索,CBM计算和CBM应用问题)。结果度量包括用于计算的WRAT和约旦 ’■故事问题(使用当地规范确定邻近学区的百分位数)以进行单词推理。他们使用ROC曲线表示,他们的筛查员非常适合定位那些将被识别为数学残疾的学生人数(但是,存在一些担忧-通过筛查甚至将-30名学生鉴定为MD(数学残疾计算))虽然不是通过规范的措施...所以“false alarms”。即使课程表显示他们被称为.MD,也有七名学生被认为不是医学博士计算“misses”. The numbers were 36 错误警报 和 7 错过 for MD-reasoning.
  • 在不同的筛选措施中,除了编号ID /计数之外,所有其他方法都可以预测MD,而CBM应用问题是两者的最佳预测器。作者进一步假设,包括多种问题(例如应用问题)的筛选措施可能是有助于预测能力的特征。
  • 我对这项研究有一些想法。显然,查看先前的研究表明,我们可能应该继续将3d捕鱼达人因素作为指导,以帮助进行假设的产生(尽管显然,先验知识在预测中仍然占主导地位。尽管这并不是本文的重点)研究。
  • I 个人ly had concerns in the use of the WRAT 和 then Jordan’的故事问题。一个使用国家规范的数据集,而另一个使用附近位置的本地规范。作者指出样本是“当地但具有代表性”,尽管所有其他结果指标都是国家规范的工具,但对我来说这是一个问题。
  • I was heartened to learn that three 煤层气 measures performed adequately in predicting the presence of a MD 和 was also enlightened 上 the importance of applied problems (要么 数学 reasoning)--a construct that I think has been very much overlooked in much of the RTI literature 上 数学 in contrast to number of digits correct. However, when I see that there were over thirty “false alarms”进行预测-这是引起真正关注的原因。含义超出了提供范围“为不需要的人提供辅导。”可能导致归因于“disability”当可能不一定存在时..a类型I错误。这可能会导致我们降低对不一定会出现缺陷的学生的期望。
  • 我另一个担心的是研究中分数的差异。尽管已注意到WRAT与WJ-III的相关系数为.71,但在一年级开始时,WJ-III的平均SS在MD时为91,在WRAT时则为第二年末的71。对于单词问题,WJ-III的MD平均得分为92,Jordan的平均得分约为66。 WJ -III和WRAT的标准偏差相当大(大约7-11点),而乔丹的标准偏差则很小(大约3点),但是我再次担心这些轮廓的差异如何。其中很大一部分可以由计算需求来解释,尽管其数量级仍然很大,但计算需求从头开始(绝对没有写数字之外),而后第二次(可能减去组合)。我可能会请一位定量专家来帮助我进一步细分“applied practitioner” has been known to “stumble 上 the stats” 在 times.
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2007年1月5日,星期五

智商分数可以预测对干预的反应吗? 约翰·加鲁托的来宾帖子

以下是来自的来宾帖子 约翰·加鲁托, 学校心理ologist with the Oswego School District 和 member of the 智商角学者虚拟社区. John 评论ed the following article 和 has provided his comments below. [博客独裁者注记-约翰的评论是“按原样”呈现的,博客独裁者仅进行了少量次要编辑 和 the insertion of some 网址 links]

Fuchs D.&Young C.L. (2006)。论智力在预测阅读教学响应性中的重要性。 杰出儿童,73(1),8-30。 (点击这里查看)

There has been considerable debate regarding the role of 3d捕鱼达人的/intellectual 评定 in the 应对干预 (RTI) paradigm, primarily with regard to the identification of students with 学习障碍(LD)。本文的目的是回顾与 智商分数 to performance in 读 介入 program. Fuchs 和 Young 评论ed 13 studies with somewhat mixed results. Below is my brief synopsis of their main conclusions:
  • Eight of the studies found 智商 to be a significant correlate to 读. However, in many cases, fidelity of treatment was not always established.
  • 作者指出,谦虚 ATI公司 公司 (智商,治疗,互动)与智商对成功与治疗类型的重要性有关(例如智商较高的患者)’s tended to do better with decoding, fluency, 和 comprehension 训练, but 智商 was less related to success in phonemic awareness 训练.)
  • Overall, Fuchs & Young, while conceding that 智商 和 a multi-factorial view of 3d捕鱼达人能力 are probably not as important to LD 诊断 as other proponents might espouse, there seems to be a role for the 智商 test as part of the process of determining how to differentiate 指令.
文章中一个有趣的转折是主要关注 ‘g’,(或总体智商;一般智力), something that many 3d捕鱼达人的 processing theorists frown upon.. However, a closer examination of the dynamics of the studies 评论ed might lead to some conclusions not stated in the paper. I offer the following observations 和 comments:
  • Fuchs 和 Young appropriately suggest that further investigations need to examine the relations between multi-factorial 楷模 of 情报 (e.g., CHC 理论) 和 response-to-treatment 干预措施. They do concede that all of their studies use overall ‘g’作为单个预测变量。但是,仔细检查发现,大多数研究都使用了 韦氏电池 (WISC-III或更早版本)。如果有人在考Olde School 韦克斯勒…一半的测试测量口头智商或结晶智能( GC )。 There is a substantial body of literature relating crystallized 情报 (Gc) to 读 ability.
  • None of the 智商测试 included in the 评论 measured auditory processing abilities (Ga), like those measured in the WJ III 和 specialized batteries (e.g., CTOPP). Therefore, it is not surprising that the authors found little relationship between 情报 tests 和 phonemic awareness 训练.
  • Cognitive ability tests have changed since the days of David 韦克斯勒. We now know (and as Fuchs 和 Carlson highlight) that skills such as 语音处理 (砷化镓),快速命名( l -NA), 拼字处理, etc. are important in 学习 to read. Although the 韦氏电池 do not assess these skills, there are 3d捕鱼达人的 ability tests that currently do. I would suggest that the relations between 3d捕鱼达人的 batteries that include measures of these important 读-related abilities would likely demonstrate stronger relations with 介入 responsiveness. Of course, this is an empirical question begging further research.
  • Although Fuchs 和 Young do not necessarily espouse a multi-factorial model of 情报 for LD identification, clearly there are implications for a problem-solving model. If 智商 (and let’s face it…IQ is predominantly GC in the case of the 韦克斯勒's) accounts for unique variance in predicting treatment outcome 和 explicit PA 训练 is not related to 智商 (but I would wager it would be related to auditory processing profiles), using CHC 理论 和 CHC -designed batteries (e.g., WJ III; 交叉电池 designed 评定s) seems to fit well within the context of this study. Other significant correlates to 读 have been 处理速度 ( s ), 短期记忆 ( GSM ) , 和 long-term storage 和 retrieval ( l ) 。上述所有功能在Wechsler电池中的代表性不足或没有体现,Wechsler电池是本次综述的重点。
  • The article 记录 ognizes 和 describes the two primary 派系 that are prominent in contemporary 特殊教育 和 学校心理学 fields--those who believe in response-to-intervention as the way to determine LD 合格, 和 those who espouse the need for 3d捕鱼达人的 评定. This article does not diminish the importance of RTI or the problem-solving model. In fact, it 支持 many of the changes noted in the regulations regarding the importance of RTI as a part LD determination process. It places importance 上 using empirically-based 指令 和 干预措施. Fuchs 和 Young also highlight the significance of formative 评定 和 上 going 进度监控
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2006年10月27日,星期五

RTI 和 3d捕鱼达人的 评定--Guest post 通过 约翰·加鲁托

以下是来自的来宾帖子 约翰·加鲁托, 学校心理ologist with the Oswego School District 和 member of the 智商角学者虚拟社区. John 评论ed the following article 和 has provided his comments below. [Blog dictator note - John's 评论 is presented "as is" with 上 ly a few minor copy edits 和 the insertion of some 网址 links]

Hale J.B.,Kaufman A.,Naglieri J.A. &Kavale,K.A. (2006)。 理念 的实施:整合对干预的反应和3d捕鱼达人评估方法。学校心理学,43(7),753-770. (点击此处查看)

This article (and the entire journal series in this special issue) has articulated much of what I have been saying 和 thinking for a long time. Hale 和 colleagues open up 通过 discussing the RTI (响应干预) 和 3d捕鱼达人的 评定 “factions”。尽管我与本文无关,但我还是对我在2005年7月进行研究生学习的PowerPoint的相似之处感到高兴(点击这里)。我开玩笑说这些派系的范式类似于“Star Wars”. I likened the idea of 学校心理ologists who espoused both RTI 和 3d捕鱼达人的 评定 as necessary requirements for the identification of SLD (Specific Learning Disability) as comprising “a rebel alliance”…主要是因为我们似乎在倡导这种平衡的方法。显然这 学校心理学 特刊表明,越来越多的专业人士拥护这种方法。

Before beginning with a general summary 和 sharing my overall impressions, it is important to acknowledge the obvious conflict of interest of most dissenters (in the special issue); both Kaufman (卡伯二世) 和 Naglieri ( 中国科学院 ) 是智力测验的作者。就是说,必须注意其他两位作者不是测试作者。实际上,许多仅支持RTI的支持者经常引用Kavale(又称干预效果规模专家)。因此,建议本文的范围以利益冲突为结尾不太可能。

  • The Hale et al. article begins with the acknowledgment that there seem to be two 派系 in 学校心理学 评定 circles--those who believe in response-to-intervention as the way to determine 合格 for SLD , 和 those who espouse the need for 3d捕鱼达人的 评定. The Hale et al. article does not diminish the importance of RTI or the problem-solving model. In fact, it 支持 many of the changes noted in the regulations (e.g., the importance of looking 在 RTI as a part of the process for determining 合格 for 学习障碍.) It places emphasis 上 the use of empirically-based 指令 和 干预措施. It also highlights the significance of formative 评定 和 上 going 进度监控. Such practices will illustrate the effect of 干预措施.
  • 在支持RTI的重要性之后,作者认为在Tier-III,需要进行负责任的个性化评估(包括3d捕鱼达人评估)。显然,仅基于RTI失败而跳至基于神经系统缺陷的结论将导致大量假阳性(I型错误)。作者在确定问题的文献中做出了与SLD相关的3d捕鱼达人加工缺陷的重要性的示范工作。这种方法不包含严重破坏能力的能力差异LD识别程序,而是支持检查那些过程导致(如果有)负面结果的过程。作者通过一个案例研究得出结论,该案例描述了一个表面上似乎有问题的孩子,但是通过3d捕鱼达人评估发现了一个潜在的潜在问题(即,没有明显表现出来的问题)。作者认为,这一发现与通过适当设计的3d捕鱼达人评估方法,允许团队实施新的干预措施,从而简化了问题解决模型。该示例的优点在于,重点不是最终资格,而是使用个性化评估来帮助解决难题。
  • I’关于作者以及可能的利益冲突,我已经讲了很多。我想提及的一件事是,我仍然是学校的从业人员。这个框架是我(作为从业者)很长时间以来一直认可的框架(上面提到的我的演讲在本文付印之前已经在线了很多个月。)’与老师进行了许多激烈的辩论,认为形成性评估和基于研究的干预措施的精神有着非常积极的研究历史,我们不首先使用这些方法,这是我们的遗憾。但是,对于那些没有反应的孩子,我经常可以完成一项可靠的个性化评估,为他们没有反应的原因提供逻辑上的理由,并继续提供与动力和技能不易体现的干预措施。我绝对不怀疑将这两种方法结合起来可以使我们超越预期“eligibility”确定孩子的需求。
  • 我的另一种想法是,对3d捕鱼达人评估的许多批评并未导致干预,这一直是缺乏建立ATI(适应性-治疗-相互作用)的研究。但是,根据儿童的需求(可能没有大量的已发表研究历史)建立个性化的干预措施并不意味着我们会放弃它。许多仅支持RTI的支持者认为,我们很可能接受特殊教育,而只是加强可以采用特殊教育范式进行的基于研究的干预措施。我认为做抽认卡来辅助视力阅读可能有经验支持,但是全天(一对一)与盲人学生抽签是不可行的。’不会做某事。但是,围绕儿童的各种需求和兴趣设计干预措施可能会(并且已经)产生积极的效果。
  • 最后,我对纯RTI范式的另一个担心是“stuck” 上 读…且仅在 国家阅读窗格l(音素意识,语音和流利度)。关于使用CBM进行数学推理或书面表达(除了拼写和写作流利性之外)的研究很少。我相信,最新版的《学校心理学评论》第35(3)版将重点放在CBM的阅读,写作和数学上。为基于实践的学校心理学家提供了我们需要的研究。恰恰相反,大多数文章都涉及数学计算和流利程度,以及拼写,力学和写作流利程度。显然,这个问题缺少对高级推理过程,词汇,归纳,演绎,推理推理和写作组织的CBM / RTI 研究。在只有RTI的倡导者开始提供这些领域的研究和指导之前,我们将被遗弃放弃提供对这些重要技能和能力有深刻见解的相关评估技术。
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供电 表演Firefox

2006年1月16日,星期一

RTI 和 3d捕鱼达人的 评定 EWOK

I'm trying an experiment in knowledge development 和 sharing.

I'm currently working 上 a literature 评论 (for a journal article) related to the role of 3d捕鱼达人的 评定 in RTI (对干预的反应) 特殊教育 评定 楷模. As a known Gv guy (aka Dr. Gv ), I make frequent use of a mind map program called 思维经理(来自Mind Jet)。它是存储笔记,文章副本等的绝佳工具。在视觉地图上。然后,随着我继续阅读,随着思维的发展,我重新布置了地图。

Given the 记录 ent interest in RTI 和 the role of 3d捕鱼达人的 评定, 和 given my interest is ascertaining if people would find dissemination of information via web-based maps (what I am calling EWOK S - Evolving Webs of Knowledge :) ), I thought I'd post my current working notes for people to view. This accomplishes two goals.

1.分享我到目前为止所找到的文献(关于这个重要主题)。
2. Demonstrating how this information dissemination strategy mechanism works....and to see if folks might find it useful as a means to build living 和 breathing EWOK s 上 topics.

在此达到顶峰 网址 .

[给Gv伙伴的提示。...如果您想查看整个视觉地图,请单击“概述地图”链接。

Be gentle...all I've 不要e is cut 和 past text from various PDF copies of articles into branch nodes. I've made no 在 tempt to format anything to look pretty. I've not yet started the step of taking the notes 和 starting to write. I'm not 不要e with my literature acquisition 和
评论。剪切粘贴的注释(有些粗体让我考虑)按“原样”显示。这不是任何一种完成的Web产品……只是尝试呈现“正在处理”的东西……。这些是我的工作笔记。

What is really cool (re: this product as a tool for 写作 和 dissemination) is that 上 ce you save it in web format 和 upload via an ftp program, all the links work....and the links to the original articles, if they are also uploaded, are active.......so folks can click 上 the links 和 view the articles themselves.

到目前为止,足够的怪胎自我启示。我会对有关EWOKS的感知价值的反馈感兴趣(当然,要更加完善)。请记住,该概念是为了使特定主题的EWOK不断更新,修订,扩展等。

可以在下面找到一个更好的示例(没有pdf文章链接) 这个连结.

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