这是 字节＃6 来自 超越智商 项目，概述建议的项目 学术能力和动机模型（MACM）。今天的构建焦点是“学术的 自-efficacy."
学术自我效能感：定义和概念背景： 一个人’s confidence in their ability to organize, execute, and regulate performance in order to solve a problem or accomplish a task 在 a designated level of skill and ability. Academic 自-efficacy refers to a person's conviction that they can successfully achieve 在 a designated level in a specific 学术的 subject area.
个人 typically select tasks and activities in which they feel competent and avoid those in which they do not. Students who are confident in their capability to organize, execute, and regulate their problem-solving or task performance 在 a designated level of 权限 are demonstrating high 自- efficacy. Self-efficacy is generally regarded as a multidimensional construct differentiated across multiple domains of functioning. The construct of 自-efficacy helps explain the finding that the behavior of 个人s is not always accurately predicted 来自ir capability to accomplish a specific task. How a person believes they will perform is often more important. Academic 自-efficacy refers to an 个人's belief (conviction) that they can successfully achieve 在 a designated level on an 学术的 task or 在tain a specific 学术的 goal (Bandura, 1997; Eccles &威格菲尔德，2002；埃里亚斯&鲁米斯（Loomis），2002年；格雷沙姆（Gresham），1988年；林嫩布林克&平特里奇（Pintrich），2002年a；舒克& Pajares, 2002).
学术自我效能感以自我效能感理论为基础（Bandura，1977）。根据自我效能感理论，自我效能感是“individual’对他们组织和执行给定行动方案以解决问题或完成任务的能力的信心” (Eccles &Wigfield，2002年，第2页。 110）。自我效能感理论表明，学术自我效能感可能会随着工作难度的变化而变化—some 个人s may believe they are most efficacious on difficult tasks, while others only on easier tasks. Furthermore, 自- efficacy is believed to be situational in nature rather than being viewed as a stable trait (Linnenbrink &Pintrich，2002a）。学生在跨不同学术领域的自我效能判断之间做出可靠的区分，共同形成了松散的层次化多维结构。自我效能不应与自尊或自我观念相混淆。自我效能是一项针对特定任务的评估，而自尊和自我概念则反映了对自我的更一般的情感评估（Linnenbrink& Pintrich, 2002a).
Causally, 自-efficacy is believed to effect performance via the influence on task perceptions. For example, research suggests high 自-efficacy creates a feeling calmness or serenity when approaching difficult tasks while low 自-efficacy may result in an 个人 perceiving a task as more difficult than reality, which, in turn, may create anxiety, stress and a 狭窄er idea on how best to approach the solving of a problem or activity (Eccles, 2005). It is further believed that an 个人's 解释 of a successfully completed mastery experience is important to the development of high 自-efficacy as 个人s use these 解释s to develop perceptions that they then act in concert with. Research also suggest that vicariously observing others perform tasks can facilitate the development of 自-efficacy, particularly when 个人s are uncertain regarding their abilities or specific tasks and they perceive similar 在tributes with the observed model.
假定了两类一般的学术期望信念。学业期望是学生’相信特定行为会导致某些结果（例如，“如果我做作业，我的成绩会提高”）。学术效能期望是学生’对他们执行必要的行为以产生特定结果的能力的信念（例如，“我有足够的动力去努力学习这项考试”）。了解这两种形式的预期信念之间的区别非常重要，因为“个人可以相信某种行为会产生某种结果（预期结果），但可能不相信他们可以执行该行为（预期功效）” (Eccles &Wigfield，2002年，第2页。 111）。
教育意义: The 自-efficacy research literature (Bong &斯卡维克（Skaalvick），2003年；埃克尔斯，2005年；传道&威格菲尔德，2002；埃里亚斯&鲁米斯（Loomis），2002年；格雷沙姆（Gresham），1988年； Prout，Marcal，&马卡尔（Marcal），1992年；舒克&帕哈雷斯（Pajares），2002年； Wentzel，1999年）提出以下一般含义：
- 在所有“self” constructs, 自-efficacy may be the most important and powerful for predicting and explaining specific behavior and outcomes. Research has demonstrated that 自-efficacy is associated with a broad range of positive outcomes, including 学术的 成就s ( r's = .49 to .70), 在hletic performance, social skills, career choices and aspirations, work performance, efficient study habits, pain tolerance, coping with feared events, and 记录overy from heart 在tacks. Eccles (2005) has reported that 自-efficacy may account for 25 % of 成就 variance above and beyondthe effects of 指令al practices.
- Academic 自-efficacy has a significant causal influence on 学术动机, 学习, and 成就 vis-à-vis a student’s effort, cognitive engagement, use of 自-regulatory 策略, goal setting and pursuit, adoption of a 学习 目标取向, higher 内在动机, persistence, 自-esteem, and expectation of future success.
- It is hypothesized that the predictive power of 自-efficacy stems 来自 fact that it is a relatively 狭窄 and pure construct that does not include the intermixing of other “self” constructs (e.g., 权限, esteem). Instead of 焦点ing on a 全球 or omnibus view of 自, 自-efficacy 焦点es on more circumscribed 自-processes (e.g., 自-regulation). As a result, research has found that it is easier to change a student’s 自-efficacy toward specific 学术的 domains than it is to change a student’s general 自- concept.
- Students who doubt their ability to successfully complete a task often participate less readily, do not work as hard, and give up quickly when faced with difficulty. Due to repeated failures in the classroom, it is hypothesized that students with disabilities may feel that they cannot adequately perform certain behaviors and tasks to achieve a desired outcome. The resultant negative outcome may be lower 学术的 自-efficacy, which in turn, can generalize to low effectance 动机, feelings of learned helplessness, and difficulties in peer acceptance and interpersonal relationships.
- Although important for 学术的 performance, positive 自-efficacy 通过 itself will not produce competent performance in the absence of prerequisite skills and knowledge (Wentzel, 1999). If a student anticipates failure due to a lack of abilities and skills (a negative outcome expectation), they are less likely to engage in the 学习 activities.
- 一个学生 ’s initial sense of 学术的 自-efficacy develops largely via a function of prior 学习 experiences and perceived ability on similar tasks. Academic 自-efficacy is subsequently refined through continued success and/or failure on similar tasks and feedback 来自 environment (e.g., adults, other students). The early years of 学术的 学习 are critical; once a specific domain of 学术的 自- efficacy beliefs are developed, they can be difficult to change.
- 成功（相对于反复失败）增强了自我效能感。与提高积极的自我效能感相关的其他变量是同龄人社交模型，近期（近端）和可达到的学习目标，自我调节策略的指导，取决于绩效的奖励，为学生校准的任务’s 指令al level, and evaluative feedback and verbal persuasive communication from a credible other. Learning environments characterized 通过 high levels of student competition, norm and social-referenced grading, and less emphasis on 个人 在tributional effort-based progress feedback have been associated with detrimental effects on 自-efficacy, particularly among low achieving students. Almost all of these 指令al and environmental variables share a common 焦点 of providing information to the student about their abilities and progress.
- 布莱克和鲁斯特（Blake and Rust，2002）推测，这一发现可能是他们大学样本的特征的一个特征，该样本的特征是残障学生更为严重。作者假设，这些学生历来无法掩盖自己的残疾，因此，在成长的初期，他们可能已经学会了对自己的能力更加开放。另外，样本很小（n = 44），可能代表了一组残疾学生（即具有较高技能和能力的学生）。
- Research suggests that parents are influential in the development of 学术的 自-efficacy. In general, higher 自-efficacy has been linked to parents who provide a warm, supportive and responsive environment that stimulates exploration, curiosity and that allows for mastery experiences. In addition, parents can serve as vicarious role 楷模 vis-a-vis the modeling of appropriate methods for coping with difficult tasks and 通过 displaying task persistence.