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2011年9月19日,星期一

超越IQ系列#14:"I know I can"--Importance of 学术的 自-efficacy for 学习




当前MACM系列分期付款

这是第十四期 超越智商 系列。本期定义 学术的 自-efficacy 并列出了各种学习意义。 [本系列的所有文章(以及其他相关文章和研究)可以通过点击 这里]。

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学术3d捕鱼达人效能感:定义和概念背景

一个人’s confidence in their ability to organize, execute, 和 regulate performance in order to solve a problem or accomplish a task 在 a designated level of skill 和 ability. Academic 自-efficacy refers to a person's conviction that they can successfully achieve 在 a designated level in a specific 学术的 subject area.

个人 typically select tasks 和 activities in which they feel competent 和 avoid those in which they do not. Students who are confident in their capability to organize, execute, 和 regulate their problem-solving or task performance 在 a designated level of 权限 are demonstrating high 自- efficacy. Self-efficacy is generally regarded as a multidimensional construct differentiated across multiple domains of functioning. The construct of 自-efficacy helps explain the finding that the behavior of 个人s is not always accurately predicted 来自ir capability to accomplish a specific task. How a person believes they will perform is often more important. Academic 自-efficacy refers to an 个人's belief (conviction) that they can successfully achieve 在 a designated level on an 学术的 task or 在tain a specific 学术的 goal (Bandura, 1997; Eccles &威格菲尔德,2002;埃里亚斯&鲁米斯(Loomis),2002年;格雷沙姆(Gresham),1988年;林嫩布林克&平特里奇(Pintrich),2002年a;舒克& Pajares, 2002).

学术3d捕鱼达人效能感以3d捕鱼达人效能感理论为基础(Bandura,1977)。根据3d捕鱼达人效能感理论,3d捕鱼达人效能感是“individual’对他们组织和执行给定行动方案以解决问题或完成任务的能力的信心” (Eccles &Wigfield,2002年,第2页。 110)。3d捕鱼达人效能感理论表明,学术3d捕鱼达人效能感可能会随着工作难度的变化而变化—some 个人s may believe they are most efficacious on difficult tasks, while others only on easier tasks. Furthermore, 自-efficacy is believed to be situational in nature rather than being viewed as a stable trait (Linnenbrink &Pintrich,2002a)。学生在跨不同学术领域的3d捕鱼达人效能判断之间做出可靠的区分,共同形成了松散的层次化多维结构。3d捕鱼达人效能不应与自尊或3d捕鱼达人观念相混淆。3d捕鱼达人效能感是一项针对特定任务的评估,而自尊和3d捕鱼达人概念则反映了对3d捕鱼达人的更一般的情感评估(Linnenbrink& Pintrich, 2002a).

Causally, 自-efficacy is believed to effect performance via the influence on task perceptions. For example, research suggests high 自-efficacy creates a feeling calmness or serenity when approaching difficult tasks while low 自-efficacy may result in an 个人 perceiving a task as more difficult than reality, which, in turn, may create anxiety, stress 和 a 狭窄er idea on how best to approach the solving of a problem or activity (Eccles, 2005). It is further believed that an 个人's 解释 of a successfully completed mastery experience is important to the development of high 自-efficacy as 个人s use these 解释s to develop perceptions that they then act in concert with. Research also suggest that vicariously observing others perform tasks can facilitate the development of 自-efficacy, particularly when 个人s are uncertain regarding their abilities or specific tasks 和 they perceive similar 在tributes with the observed model.

假定了两类一般的学术期望信念。 学术成果期望 是学生’相信特定行为会导致某些结果(例如,“如果我做作业,我的成绩会提高 ”). 学术效能期望 是学生’对他们执行必要的行为以产生特定结果的能力的信念(例如,“我有足够的动力去努力学习这项考试”)。了解这两种形式的预期信念之间的区别非常重要,因为“个人可以相信某种行为会产生某种结果(预期结果),但可能不相信他们可以执行该行为(预期功效)” (Eccles &Wigfield,2002年,第2页。 111)。


学术3d捕鱼达人效能:启示

The 自-efficacy research literature (Bong &斯卡维克(Skaalvick),2003年;埃克尔斯,2005年;传道&威格菲尔德,2002;埃里亚斯&鲁米斯(Loomis),2002年;格雷沙姆(Gresham),1988年; Prout,Marcal,&马卡尔(Marcal),1992年;舒克&帕哈雷斯(Pajares),2002年; Wentzel,1999年)提出以下一般含义:

在所有“self” constructs, 自-efficacy may be the most important 和 powerful for predicting 和 explaining specific behavior 和 outcomes. Research has demonstrated that 自-efficacy is associated with a broad range of positive outcomes, including 学术的 成就s ( r's = .49 to .70), 在hletic performance, social skills, career choices 和 aspirations, work performance, efficient study habits, pain tolerance, coping with feared events, 和 记录overy from heart 在tacks. Eccles (2005) has reported that 自-efficacy may account for 25 % of 成就 variance above 和 beyondthe effects of 指令al practices.

Academic 自-efficacy has a significant causal influence on 学术动机, 学习, 和 成就 vis-à-vis a student’s effort, cognitive engagement, use of 自-regulatory 策略, goal setting 和 pursuit, adoption of a 学习 目标取向, higher 内在动机, persistence, 自-esteem, 和 expectation of future success.

It is hypothesized that the predictive power of 自-efficacy stems 来自 fact that it is a relatively 狭窄 和 pure construct that does not include the intermixing of other “self” constructs (e.g., 权限, esteem). Instead of 焦点ing on a 全球 or omnibus view of 自, 自-efficacy 焦点es on more circumscribed 自-processes (e.g., 自-regulation). As a result, research has found that it is easier to change a student’s 自-efficacy toward specific 学术的 domains than it is to change a student’s general 自- concept.

Students who doubt their ability to successfully complete a task often participate less readily, do not work as hard, 和 give up quickly when faced with difficulty. Due to repeated failures in the classroom, it is hypothesized that students with disabilities may feel that they cannot adequately perform certain behaviors 和 tasks to achieve a desired outcome. The resultant negative outcome may be lower 学术的 自-efficacy, which in turn, can generalize to low effectance 动机, feelings of learned helplessness, 和 difficulties in peer acceptance 和 interpersonal relationships.

Although important for 学术的 performance, positive 自-efficacy 通过 itself will not produce competent performance in the absence of prerequisite skills 和 knowledge (Wentzel, 1999). If a student anticipates failure due to a lack of abilities 和 skills (a negative outcome expectation), they are less likely to engage in the 学习 activities.

一个学生’s initial sense of 学术的 自-efficacy develops largely via a function of prior 学习 experiences 和 perceived ability on similar tasks. Academic 自-efficacy is subsequently refined through continued success 和/or failure on similar tasks 和 feedback 来自 environment (e.g., adults, other students). The early years of 学术的 学习 are critical; once a specific domain of 学术的 自- efficacy beliefs are developed, they can be difficult to change.

成功(相对于反复失败)增强了3d捕鱼达人效能感。与提高积极的3d捕鱼达人效能感相关的其他变量是同龄人社交模型,近期(近端)和可达到的学习目标,3d捕鱼达人调节策略的指导,取决于绩效的奖励,为学生校准的任务’的教学水平,以及来自可信的其他人的评估反馈和口头说服性沟通。

Learning environments characterized 通过 high levels of student competition, norm 和 social-referenced grading, 和 less emphasis on 个人 在tributional effort-based progress feedback have been associated with detrimental effects on 自-efficacy, particularly among low achieving students. Almost all of these 指令al 和 environmental variables share a common 焦点 of providing information to the student about their abilities 和 progress.

积极,贴心的学习环境可提供准确的反馈和赞美(相对于不准确和多余的赞美),可以培养出准确的3d捕鱼达人效能感信念。当学生升入学校成绩时,相对于重复的工作经验和规范的同伴比较,他们的3d捕鱼达人评估变得更加准确。此外,允许进行广泛的社会比较(与其他学生的表现进行比较)的教室往往会降低那些与他人相比表现差的学生的3d捕鱼达人效能。在大学人群中,残疾学生的学术3d捕鱼达人效能感可能等于或高于非残疾学生的3d捕鱼达人效能感。布莱克和鲁斯特(Blake 和 Rust,2002)推测,这一发现可能是他们大学样本的特征的一个特征,该样本的特征是残障学生更为严重。作者假设,这些学生历来无法掩盖自己的残疾,因此,在成长的初期,他们可能已经学会了对自己的能力更加开放。另外,样本很小(n = 44),可能代表了一组残疾学生(即具有较高技能和能力的学生)。

Research suggests that parents are influential in the development of 学术的 自-efficacy. In general, higher 自-efficacy has been linked to parents who provide a warm, supportive 和 responsive environment that stimulates exploration, curiosity 和 that allows for mastery experiences. In addition, parents can serve as vicarious role 楷模 vis-a-vis the modeling of appropriate methods for coping with difficult tasks 和 通过 displaying task persistence.


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产生者: 标签生成器


2008年12月31日,星期三

超越智商 字节#6: Academic 自-efficacy


这是 字节#6 来自 超越智商 项目,概述建议的项目 学术能力和动机模型(MACM)。今天的构建焦点是“学术的 自-efficacy."

学术3d捕鱼达人效能感:定义和概念背景
: 一个人’s confidence in their ability to organize, execute, 和 regulate performance in order to solve a problem or accomplish a task 在 a designated level of skill 和 ability. Academic 自-efficacy refers to a person's conviction that they can successfully achieve 在 a designated level in a specific 学术的 subject area.

个人 typically select tasks 和 activities in which they feel competent 和 avoid those in which they do not. Students who are confident in their capability to organize, execute, 和 regulate their problem-solving or task performance 在 a designated level of 权限 are demonstrating high 自- efficacy. Self-efficacy is generally regarded as a multidimensional construct differentiated across multiple domains of functioning. The construct of 自-efficacy helps explain the finding that the behavior of 个人s is not always accurately predicted 来自ir capability to accomplish a specific task. How a person believes they will perform is often more important. Academic 自-efficacy refers to an 个人's belief (conviction) that they can successfully achieve 在 a designated level on an 学术的 task or 在tain a specific 学术的 goal (Bandura, 1997; Eccles &威格菲尔德,2002;埃里亚斯&鲁米斯(Loomis),2002年;格雷沙姆(Gresham),1988年;林嫩布林克&平特里奇(Pintrich),2002年a;舒克& Pajares, 2002).

学术3d捕鱼达人效能感以3d捕鱼达人效能感理论为基础(Bandura,1977)。根据3d捕鱼达人效能感理论,3d捕鱼达人效能感是“individual’对他们组织和执行给定行动方案以解决问题或完成任务的能力的信心” (Eccles &Wigfield,2002年,第2页。 110)。3d捕鱼达人效能感理论表明,学术3d捕鱼达人效能感可能会随着工作难度的变化而变化—some 个人s may believe they are most efficacious on difficult tasks, while others only on easier tasks. Furthermore, 自- efficacy is believed to be situational in nature rather than being viewed as a stable trait (Linnenbrink &Pintrich,2002a)。学生在跨不同学术领域的3d捕鱼达人效能判断之间做出可靠的区分,共同形成了松散的层次化多维结构。3d捕鱼达人效能不应与自尊或3d捕鱼达人观念相混淆。3d捕鱼达人效能感是一项针对特定任务的评估,而自尊和3d捕鱼达人概念则反映了对3d捕鱼达人的更一般的情感评估(Linnenbrink& Pintrich, 2002a).

Causally, 自-efficacy is believed to effect performance via the influence on task perceptions. For example, research suggests high 自-efficacy creates a feeling calmness or serenity when approaching difficult tasks while low 自-efficacy may result in an 个人 perceiving a task as more difficult than reality, which, in turn, may create anxiety, stress 和 a 狭窄er idea on how best to approach the solving of a problem or activity (Eccles, 2005). It is further believed that an 个人's 解释 of a successfully completed mastery experience is important to the development of high 自-efficacy as 个人s use these 解释s to develop perceptions that they then act in concert with. Research also suggest that vicariously observing others perform tasks can facilitate the development of 自-efficacy, particularly when 个人s are uncertain regarding their abilities or specific tasks 和 they perceive similar 在tributes with the observed model.

假定了两类一般的学术期望信念。学业期望是学生’相信特定行为会导致某些结果(例如,“如果我做作业,我的成绩会提高 ”)。学术效能期望’对他们执行必要的行为以产生特定结果的能力的信念(例如,“我有足够的动力去努力学习这项考试”)。了解这两种形式的预期信念之间的区别非常重要,因为“个人可以相信某种行为会产生某种结果(预期结果),但可能不相信他们可以执行该行为(预期功效)” (Eccles &Wigfield,2002年,第2页。 111)。


教育意义
: The 自-efficacy research literature (Bong &斯卡维克(Skaalvick),2003年;埃克尔斯,2005年;传道&威格菲尔德,2002;埃里亚斯&鲁米斯(Loomis),2002年;格雷沙姆(Gresham),1988年; Prout,Marcal,&马卡尔(Marcal),1992年;舒克&帕哈雷斯(Pajares),2002年; Wentzel,1999年)提出以下一般含义:

  • 在所有“self” constructs, 自-efficacy may be the most important 和 powerful for predicting 和 explaining specific behavior 和 outcomes. Research has demonstrated that 自-efficacy is associated with a broad range of positive outcomes, including 学术的 成就s ( r's = .49 to .70), 在hletic performance, social skills, career choices 和 aspirations, work performance, efficient study habits, pain tolerance, coping with feared events, 和 记录overy from heart 在tacks. Eccles (2005) has reported that 自-efficacy may account for 25 % of 成就 variance above 和 beyondthe effects of 指令al practices.
  • Academic 自-efficacy has a significant causal influence on 学术动机, 学习, 和 成就 vis-à-vis a student’s effort, cognitive engagement, use of 自-regulatory 策略, goal setting 和 pursuit, adoption of a 学习 目标取向, higher 内在动机, persistence, 自-esteem, 和 expectation of future success.
  • It is hypothesized that the predictive power of 自-efficacy stems 来自 fact that it is a relatively 狭窄 和 pure construct that does not include the intermixing of other “self” constructs (e.g., 权限, esteem). Instead of 焦点ing on a 全球 or omnibus view of 自, 自-efficacy 焦点es on more circumscribed 自-processes (e.g., 自-regulation). As a result, research has found that it is easier to change a student’s 自-efficacy toward specific 学术的 domains than it is to change a student’s general 自- concept.
  • Students who doubt their ability to successfully complete a task often participate less readily, do not work as hard, 和 give up quickly when faced with difficulty. Due to repeated failures in the classroom, it is hypothesized that students with disabilities may feel that they cannot adequately perform certain behaviors 和 tasks to achieve a desired outcome. The resultant negative outcome may be lower 学术的 自-efficacy, which in turn, can generalize to low effectance 动机, feelings of learned helplessness, 和 difficulties in peer acceptance 和 interpersonal relationships.
  • Although important for 学术的 performance, positive 自-efficacy 通过 itself will not produce competent performance in the absence of prerequisite skills 和 knowledge (Wentzel, 1999). If a student anticipates failure due to a lack of abilities 和 skills (a negative outcome expectation), they are less likely to engage in the 学习 activities.
  • 一个学生’s initial sense of 学术的 自-efficacy develops largely via a function of prior 学习 experiences 和 perceived ability on similar tasks. Academic 自-efficacy is subsequently refined through continued success 和/or failure on similar tasks 和 feedback 来自 environment (e.g., adults, other students). The early years of 学术的 学习 are critical; once a specific domain of 学术的 自- efficacy beliefs are developed, they can be difficult to change.
  • 成功(相对于反复失败)增强了3d捕鱼达人效能感。与提高积极的3d捕鱼达人效能感相关的其他变量是同龄人社交模型,近期(近端)和可达到的学习目标,3d捕鱼达人调节策略的指导,取决于绩效的奖励,为学生校准的任务’的教学水平,以及来自可信的其他人的评估反馈和口头说服性沟通。 Learning environments characterized 通过 high levels of student competition, norm 和 social-referenced grading, 和 less emphasis on 个人 在tributional effort-based progress feedback have been associated with detrimental effects on 自-efficacy, particularly among low achieving students. Almost all of these 指令al 和 environmental variables share a common 焦点 of providing information to the student about their abilities 和 progress.
  • 积极,贴心的学习环境可提供准确的反馈和赞美(相对于不准确和多余的赞美),可以培养出准确的3d捕鱼达人效能感信念。当学生升入学校成绩时,相对于重复的工作经验和规范的同伴比较,他们的3d捕鱼达人评估变得更加准确。此外,允许进行广泛的社会比较(与其他学生的表现进行比较)的教室往往会降低那些与他人相比表现差的学生的3d捕鱼达人效能。在大学人群中,残疾学生的学术3d捕鱼达人效能感可能等于或高于非残疾学生的3d捕鱼达人效能感。
  • 布莱克和鲁斯特(Blake 和 Rust,2002)推测,这一发现可能是他们大学样本的特征的一个特征,该样本的特征是残障学生更为严重。作者假设,这些学生历来无法掩盖自己的残疾,因此,在成长的初期,他们可能已经学会了对自己的能力更加开放。另外,样本很小(n = 44),可能代表了一组残疾学生(即具有较高技能和能力的学生)。
  • Research suggests that parents are influential in the development of 学术的 自-efficacy. In general, higher 自-efficacy has been linked to parents who provide a warm, supportive 和 responsive environment that stimulates exploration, curiosity 和 that allows for mastery experiences. In addition, parents can serve as vicarious role 楷模 vis-a-vis the modeling of appropriate methods for coping with difficult tasks 和 通过 displaying task persistence.
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2008年11月30日,星期日

超越智商项目:Ed Psych文章摘要

最近一期的 教育心理学杂志 (2008年,第100卷,第8期)的许多文章涉及 超越智商项目 学术能力和动机模型 (MACMM)。以下是iAbstract(从myiPhone捕获并通过电子邮件发送的图像)。如果有任何读者想阅读其中一篇文章(我将提供pdf文件的副本),以换取对此沼泽的来宾博客帖子摘要,请联系博客管理员([email protected]






MACMM成就目标导向 (下三个)










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